Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology

Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology is a book written by an author named Elaine Marieb. The book is now in its 10th Edition and it really sets the standard fro learning all about the human anatomy and physiology.  The book provides a short course on this topic for all students.

In the 10th edition, the presentation of the complicated material has been streamlined and the course material is presented in a way that will help students better understand the essential information on anatomy and physiology.

The book illustrates the concepts and key terms, and provides a clear picture of anatomy and physiology.

Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology can be purchased on

Anatomy and Physiology

In the world of living organisms, humans have developed the most sophisticated systems and therefore human beings are the most advanced species living on earth. The human body is essentially one integrated unit that consists of millions of cells and functioning systems that keep life processes going.

As we learn in the study of anatomy and physiology, there are fundamentally four specific major functioning systems that provide humans with a uniqueness that is not replicated anywhere else on this planet.

1. Human cells are known to be the simplest parts of all living matter. As small as cells are, cells have the incredible ability to sustain life and reproduce new cells.

As we all learn in Biology 101 in high school, human cells begin their existence as a single fertilized cell. After being given life through fertilization, human cells have a great capacity to duplicate.

2. Human tissue is a much more sophisticated system than cells are. Actually tissue is a group of a large number of like cells that perform specific functions in the body.

3. Organs in the human body are substantially more complicated functioning units than even systems such as tissues. Organs are a collection of many different types of tissues. The purpose of organs is to support the body by performing a wide variety of special functions needed to sustain life.

The heart is an example of an organ in the body. The heart is an essential organ that pumps blood to and from the body.

4. Systems are considered the most complex of the functioning units in the body. A system is made up of group of organs for the purpose of performing essential functions in the body.

The circulatory system is an example of a system in the body. The circulatory system’s main function is to transport blood to all parts of the body.

Physiological functions in the body are essential to sustaining living organisms like humans. The body’s sophisticated functions are ultimately built upon the complex arrangement of human cells.

Similar cells are grouped together to form more complex systems like tissues. Tissues are then group to function in evermore complex operations such as organs. Organs are group together to function in systems.

All of these mechanisms are needed to sustain human organisms, which are the most complex organisms on the planet.

Homeostasis – A Mechanism for Maintaining Equilibrium

The human body contains of millions of cells that all must function in tandem in order for the body to live. Even though cells perform a wide range of specialized functions, most cells have a similar metabolic necessity. All living cells have few minimum requirements needed to survive.

Some examples of the cell’s minimum needs include glucose, oxygen, minerals and the ability to remove waste products from the cell. These components are necessary for the cell to be able to maintain themselves so that they can function together to maintain the body.

Homeostasis is otherwise known as the collection of various processes within the body that the body employs to regulate its internal environment so that cells can live and perform their intended function.

Homeostasis is an essential and vital mechanism that the body employs to maintain a constant environment in the body. This constant equilibrium situation provides stability to the body.
Maintaining an unchanging inner equilibrium involves monitoring the inner body constantly.

As conditions change, then modifications are required. Sometime the modifications are very small and other times the adjustments are significant. The continuous adjustments that are made by the systems in the body to maintain equilibrium in the body is referred to as homeostatic regulation.

Homeostatic regulation is achieved through the employment of the following three mechanisms. First, receptors in the cells receive feedback that something has change the equilibrium status in the body.

Then the second mechanism involves the control center or also referred to as the integration center. The control center collects and processes messages sent from the receptor.
The third mechanism employed in homeostatic regulation is the effector. The effector reacts and causes the cell to respond to information and directions that are sent out by the control center.

Homeostatic regulation in the body is a process that is constantly working to maintaining an equilibrium state in the body.

Regulation of a constant body temperature is an example of homeostatic regulation that is occurring constantly in the body.

Homeostasis is just one of many essential human physiological processes that is needed to allow the body to live.


What is Human Physiology?

Human physiology is the study of a very complex and essential system in our body. The immune system provides protection to our bodies from infections and substances that could potentially make us sick.

Our body’s immune system includes three lines of defense. The first line of defense from invaders is our skin and mucus membranes. Because the skin serves such an important function as the first line of defense, the skin as whole is sometimes considered an organ.

The second line of defense of our immune system involves an efficient web of various defense mechanisms. This second line of defense utilizes several methods to protect the body by fighting against microbes such as pathogens that have passed through the skin and mucus membranes. These microbes can infect the body and cause fever and other inflammatory responses.

The immune system’s third line of defense is designed to fight against certain pathogens that can cause diseases. Certain immune system cells are equipped to produce antibodies to ward off bacteria. While other immune system cells are equipped with the ability to destroy infected cells.

Human physiology is amazingly complex and the body’s immune system is a tremendously effective tool in fighting off unhealthy bacteria and dangerous microbes.

The immune system is a miraculous phenomenon that operates silently in the background. We are keenly aware of each breathe that we take and we hear our heart beating. But the immune system is toiling away non-stop to protect us from millions of potentially deadly attacks each minute of the day.